Vitamin B3 5%, Manuka Oil, Evening Primrose Oil, Green Tea Extract, and PEA (palmitoyethanolamide).
Vitamin B3 or Nicotinamide 5% reduces DNA damage caused by the sun's radiation by providing cellular energy to cells for faster and more efficient DNA repair. It is crucial for healthy skin, especially for those who have sun-damaged skin. Radiation from the sun causes immune suppression and DNA damage in cells.
Professor Damian at the University of Sydney had tested a number of compounds which could potentially prevent this sunlight-induced immune suppression, and found that a form of vitamin B3, called nicotinamide, had the greatest potential. Her team was able to prove that nicotinamide, either as a topical lotion or a daily tablet, is highly effective in providing immune protection.
PEA is a naturally occurring substance in the body which reduces inflammation.
Evening Primrose Oil is rich in Gamma Linolenic Acid which helps restore the skin's lipid layer.
Manuka Oil has been treasured for centuries by the Maori people, who are indigenous to New Zealand, where the low shrub originates. Triketones in Manuka Oil are key antagonists to gram-positive bacteria (more so than Tea Tree) and has many wonderful uses on the skin, including calming red and inflamed areas. Manuka Oil is also being researched for its anti-photoaging effects and antioxidant activity against skin inflammation induced by UV radiation.
Green Tea extract contains Polyphenols that protect plants from UV radiation. They have epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which is a potent anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenger, that also reactivates dying skin cells on the top layer of the skin by increasing energy in the cells for DNA replication. It is also 100x more effective than Vitamin C, and 25x more effective than vitamin E at protecting cells and their DNA from damage. Ellagic Acids in Tea Extract also lightens the complexion by inhibiting tyrosinase and melanin production thus preventing further appearance of dark spots.
This is not a substitute for sunscreen nor is it a bleaching, or whitening lotion for dark sunspots.